ROV Meteorite HuntMarch 15 2017
On Monday, February 6, 2017, around 1:30 a.m. CST, a sonic boom shook residents of the Midwest as a bright green fireball streaked through the night sky. The sound was that of a meteor, nearly the size of a minivan, entering our atmosphere. After its fall to Earth, radar spotted the end of its journey over Lake Michigan, approximately 10 miles off the coast of Sheboygan, Wisconsin. Teen explorers from Chicago, led by scientists from the Adler Planetarium's Far Horizons program, The Shedd Aquarium, and The Field Museum, team up to take on this Underwater ROV Meteorite Hunt. Interested explorers wanted!Read background
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Written by Far Horizons Teen Intern: Mary Greenlees
Last week, Chris Bresky along with researchers at the Shedd Aquarium threw MUMS Sr. into Lake Michigan to see how it would perform in the lake, towed behind a boat.
They went early in the morning since the lake was calmer and clearer. The spot they chose was just north of Navy Pier, where it was predicted that the sandy lake bottom would be similar to the environment of the strewn field. However, we were surprised to find Pond Grass. Dr. Willink, the senior research biologist at the Shedd Aquarium was excited because it’s native and healthy this close to the city. (However we most likely wouldn’t find this where we are going). Upon arrival at the destination, there were a few difficulties with the winch. The winch is the device used to haul up and lower MUMS Sr. using a rope and a motor. It performed slower than expected, for testing in deeper water, we would most likely want a stronger/quicker winch. When it was lowered, there was also a problem with MUMS not landing rightside up. Since MUMS Sr. is seeming to flip even at 15 feet, this may be a problem for testing in 100 meters of water.
While in motion during testing, they observed that the nose of MUMS Sr. tended to move upwards, this may be due to a combination of improper boat speed (too fast) and a flaw in our design. A diver was able to follow MUMS Sr. and saw that it was occasionally “flying” in the water (meaning that it was not touching the lake bottom while it was dragged by the boat). Midway through the testing, they attached GoPros to the sled to better assess the design. These videos captured the occasional “flight” of the sled, and the fact it flipped upside down once. Possible fixes included adding flotation devices on the top and weights on the bottom (magnets will probably help here) in order to help it land right side up. In addition to this, we were thinking about adding a spoiler/fin on the nose to keep the sled from flying off the lake bottom.
We still have a ways to go, but we have learned a lot from this trial and are ready to continue our adventure!
MUMS Jr Update and Meteorite Engineering
Written by Far Horizons Teen Interns: Mary Greenlees, Jennifer Moore, and David Torrejon
Hey, it’s the Adler Planetarium’s Far Horizon summer interns again. This past week, we worked on producing a video tutorial to demonstrate how to properly build artificial meteorites. You can watch the video below.
The purpose of these artificial meteorites (meteorite simulants) is to test if our retrieval magnets on our sled (MUMS Jr.) can properly retrieve actual meteorites. It is essential for us to find the correct formula to create meteorites because previously, the metal fragments within the meteorite simulants we made to test were not well distributed. The fragments were sinking to one side as the concrete dried. Therefore, it is possible that these lopsided metal fragments may have interfered with our experiments. There was an obvious need to have a meteorite with evenly distributed metal fragments.
Meteorite Making Instructions
Here are the instructions for making a meteorite: To create our meteorites we need concrete, water, and metal ball bearings (we recommend iron buckshot or nickel iron in small balls as they seem to distribute better in the simulant). We also need a digital scale that measures in grams, disposable cups, disposable gloves, and a wooden popsicle stick or other mixing implement.
Start with putting your gloves on. Then, turn on the scale and place an empty disposable cup on it and press the TARE button in order to zero the scale.
After that’s done, we are going to put in the concrete. In order to be as close to your target weight as possible, 80% of the weight will be concrete, 10% will go to the iron buckshot, and the other 10% (and more if needed) will go to water added. But it’s alright if you go over the targeted weight with the water because some of the water will evaporate once dried completely. First, you are going to measure out the concrete into the disposable cup. Next you put the water in. It is recommended that you put over 10% in so that it is easier to mix. In small increments pour a few drops of water in at a time and and mix the water into the concrete.
Once the mixture is strong enough to hold it’s shape (a dough-like consistency), place the mixture back on the scale and hit the TARE button again. Then put in the metal. After it is poured in, thoroughly mix the concrete in order to make sure that the metal is evenly distributed. Next, scrape the mixture into your hands and begin with rolling it into a ball. Since we do not want a perfectly round shape, make flat edges to make it resemble more of a rock. This allows the meteorite to stick to the magnet better.
Once that it is done, label a plastic bag with the grams and percentage of iron in it. Then, place the meteorite in the plastic bag and place it into a box filled with sand (to help it hold its shape) whilst keeping the plastic bag open in order to let it dry. We plan it so the meteorites rest overnight. In addition, we also recommend that once the meteorites are completely dry, to paint them a vibrant color so that it is easy to locate them once they are dropped in the sand/water.
Sled Engineering Update:
Written by Jennifer Moore - Far Horizons Teen Intern
Hello! It’s Jennifer Moore again, I figured you wanted to hear MOORE from me!
Entering the Far Horizons Lab has been exciting and challenging thus far, and I feel that during these four weeks I have already learned so much. I have been presented engineering problems, using tools, and doing tests to check our work. I’ve been doing a lot of CAD (Computer Aided Design) to design a magnet bar for our second model of MUMS. The largest challenge I’ve faced thus far is the change in design from our original model to the new model. I’m a stubborn person and do not like change, so I am not a fan of this design. However, I guess I’ll have to adapt.
7-18 After our not as good test last Friday, we spent most of Tuesday stitching together footage from our 360 camera and identifying problems with MUMS Jr. The plan with our 360 footage is to see if we can find and watch issues that we noticed with MUMS that we could not see during our test. In addition we identified problems with our magnet bar, (not adaptable, not enough of a pull), our magnet ramp, (clogging up with sand, possible slowing down), and identifying what type, shape, and power of magnet we should use. (See our a sample of our test video in 360 VR below)
7-19 Today was mostly spent trying to adapt our ideas from yesterday to the new model of MUMS that we received from the Shedd Aquarium (photo below). I don’t like this new design, because it is not similar to our current model. This threw me off, and is making me adjust my designs. But science is mysterious and I will have to work around this. We considered using a movable magnet or a ‘magnet wheel’, and currently it looks like we will work with the magnet wheel. Our current plan is to make the magnet wheel to fit into our new MUMS design and test it as well. The modified wheel is made out of two soda bottles, a wheel, a lot of duct tape and string! We anticipate testing it today, it has been wild(test photos below)! We got to have a Skype call with Dr. Marc Fries of NASA, and it was so awesome! We got to ask him questions, and learned about his research, what it is like to work at NASA, and interesting NASA stories! He was fantastic to talk to and so cool that he is a part of this project with us.
7-20 A constant problem we’ve had throughout our testing was lopsided meteorites. With the way we make our meteorites, (water, concrete, and tiny metal fragments) we’ve had all of the metal components sink to one side. This made testing difficult because since the metal didn’t distribute evenly, we never truly knew if our design failed, or if the more metallic/magnetic side of the meteorite simulant wasn’t facing towards our retrieval magnet. Today we modeled different ways to make the meteorites (plaster or concrete mix) and different ways to make them. We don’t know which method is best yet, as we are waiting for them to dry.
7-21 Today Far Horizons Interns got to go on a field trip to the Field Museum. We got to meet with Jennika Greer, meteorite extraordinaire to look at their collections! She also showed us various spaces within the Field, including an scanning electron microscope(photo below)! It was a super fun experience! When we returned to the planetarium, our meteorite models from yesterday dried. Now it’s time to see which recipe for meteorite is the best! We have seven different ways to make the meteorites, some with plaster and some with concrete. One concern that I’m feeling with the meteorite models is with most of our methods, the weights are off of what the target weight is. This is extra sad because my two personal favorite recipes that seem to do well with the magnets, have different weights than what they should. I’m afraid that altering the recipe will affect how well they stick to our magnet, their durability, etc. At least we’re on the right path to figuring out the best “space pierogi” recipe!
Testing the Second Iteration of MUMS Jr.
Written by David Torrejon - Far Horizons Teen Intern
Hello, my name is David Torrejon, I am a rising senior at William Jones College Preparatory High School. This year, I am one of the Far Horizons summer interns working on the Magnetic Underwater Meteorite Sled (MUMS Jr.)
For the first couple of weeks of the internship, I was concerned about my role as a Far Horizons summer intern, considering I was not that well acquainted with tools and had not taken any engineering classes at school. Fortunately, I was taught by my supervisor and my fellow peers how to properly and efficiently operate tools and how to navigate through Tinkercad, a 3-D design tool utilized to design prototypes. It was initially a struggle, however, it proved to be an arduous yet amusing challenge. In fact, I can now comfortably operate these tools and feel confident teaching my peers how to safely use these tools.
Last week we analyzed the design of the Magnetic Underwater Meteorite Sled (MUMS Jr.) and proposed suggestions for improving the device, we have dedicated this entire week to prototyping the final design of the device so that we can reassess the effectiveness of it through more trials at Northerly Island. This week, we primarily focused on the structure of the device to increase the likelihood that we will collect meteorite fragments. We evenly distributed three PVC columns along the lengths of the sled. These will serve as adjustable attachment points for our magnetic bar. Using a drill press, we drilled holes, whose diameter measured 5 millimeters, vertically along the columns, at one inch intervals. Our magnet bar, which carries four, two square centimeter Rare Earth Magnets that stretch across two opposing columns. We first planned to have multiple magnets at different heights because the fragments’ iron content ranges from 4-10% and differ in sizes.
Our team also built a bumper in front of the sled to prevent any fragments from the meteorite from being knocked off the magnet by large rocks and to reduce the likelihood that a large object damages the magnets. We constructed the bumper out of PVC pipes and highly durable shock resistant rope.
It was a thrilling experience for our team, as we tested the Magnetic Underwater Meteorite Sled (MUMS Jr.) this past Friday at Northerly Island. Based on the trials, our team concluded that we needed to modify some aspects of the sled. During the trials, when we placed the sled in the water, our team noticed that the sled was tilting forward. As a result of the tilt, the mouth of the bar magnet was being congested by the sand, preventing any of our artificial meteorite fragments from attaching to the bar magnet. To solve this issue, we are considering using a movable magnetic bar, or perhaps converting our “bar” to a wheel or sorts. After completing the trials, our team will use our observations to improve the sled. Kachow for now.
Far Horizons Interns Begin in the Lab
Written by Mary Greenlees - Far Horizons Teen Intern
Hey, my name is Mary Greenlees, I am a rising senior at Riverside-Brookfield High School and I am one of the Far Horizons Summer Interns that are working on the Magnetic Meteorite Sled (MUMS Jr.)
Today was our first day as a Far Horizons Summer Intern team to tackle the project and learn more about the sled itself. Dr. Phil Willink from the Shedd Aquarium visited us to discuss questions we had about the design of the sled and how we could improve the device. We brainstormed a list of concerns and questions we had and asked for his input.
One of the things that we brought up was adding new parts to MUMS Jr. in order to improve it. We discussed adding a rake like device in the front of the sled in order to stir up the sand at the lake bottom, in the hope that any meteorite fragments that had been covered would be more easily discovered. We were also interested in adding a basket, because in the first tests done, it was noted that objects that stuck to the magnet were knocked off the magnet due to a larger object hitting it. In addition, we also thought about adding a bumper (possibly made of rubber) in front of the magnet bar in order to prevent the fragile magnet breaking, and also prevent possible meteorites being knocked off the magnet.
We also had the question of the design of the magnet bar, including what kind of magnets we would want to use. The magnets are a complex issue, due to the multitude of variables that involved choosing the magnets, as well as designing the bar that they would be attached to. We all agreed that we would definitely need stronger magnets than the ones that were used to test the sled on 12th Street Beach. Our research showed differences and similarities between Rare Earth Magnets, Ceramic Magnets, and Alnico Magnets. We discovered that Rare Earth Magnets tend to have a stronger pull (compared to their typical small size), however they were fragile and were generally more expensive. While ceramic magnets are less expensive, but were also brittle. And Alnico magnets are durable, but more expensive. After our research, we decided to do more hands on work with magnets. So we decided to remove the magnets from the hard drives of broken laptops! After extracting the magnets, we began to experiment with other magnets we had on hand in order to evaluate what we wanted our magnets and magnet bar to look like.
For the first day working as a team on the meteorite hunt, we got a lot accomplished and have high hopes for the future of the hunt!
Our First Prototype Magnetic Meteorite Sled Test
Written by Jennifer Moore - Far Horizons Teen Intern
I am an eighteen year old incoming freshman at Southern Illinois University Carbondale, a recent graduate of Marist High School (but those days are behind me) and also a Far Horizons Teen Intern!
Today was our first day of testing the Magnetic Underwater Meteorite Sled (MUMS Jr.). We did three tests in different conditions, the first one in the sand, the second in the rocks, and the third in the water! (watch the 360 video below)
Before we did any testing we attached a 360 camera to see our progress while the sled was underwater. We also adjusted the height of our magnets using duct tape. All of these tests happened at 12th Street Beach, in Chicago, next to the Adler Planetarium.
Our model meteorites (which look somewhat like space pierogis) were slightly buried by the sand. This really hindered us, because our magnets couldn't pick them up. This will probably be similar to conditions in the lake. However, the magnet picked up lots of what we think is [iron filaments] (http://imgur.com/a/vZCtL) and little magnetic rocks. This is something to take into account when we will be searching in the water... perhaps there is a way to clean this off.
The second test was slightly better than the first. We adjusted the magnet a second time, and the sled pulled far easier than it did in the sand. Hopefully the texture of the lake is more similar to the rocks. We only picked up one meteorites. (space pierogis) Another issue we faced was our sled would push rocks up and onto our magnet, which can be frustrating and possibly push off meteorites (space pierogis) our magnet.
Our final test occurred in the water, about one meter deep. The team all had to wear waders, which felt weird in the water. We had our 360 camera recording during this portion of the test! I (Jennifer Moore) pretended to be the boat and pulled it through the water. Once again, we did not pick up all five meteorites (space pierogis), however we picked up 3 of them! Also our MUMS (Magnetic Underwater Meteorite Sled) moved fairly easy while in the water!
We learned a lot to continue to modify our sled design. Overall I consider it a success!!!
Great Lakes Mapping Expedition with NOAA
UPDATE: We were grateful that NOAA Great Lakes invited us on board the RV/STORM this week off the coast of Manitowoc, Wisconsin to gain a deeper understanding of side scan sonar capabilities. They were on the last day of their two week long scanning mission for a proposed Marine Sanctuary
Unfortunately we weren't able to make it out to the strewn field, but we were able to get a solid sense of how the sonar reflects off of the various substrate on the lake bottom (check out the video below). We then went back over certain key areas that stood out in the side scan data to ground truth with a drop camera.
Materials that were used on this lake bed scanning mission: Side Scan Sonar Mapping Software - ArcView Drop Camera Temp/Salniity/Soundspeed Sensor
A broad mapping with side scan sonar won't detect each meteorite fragment, but it will give us a better idea of where we might be able to run a magnetic retrieval sled without running into rocks. We are interested in testing high resolution scans on smaller fields to understand how high of a resolution we can achieve. Once NOAA processes the data, it will not only be helpful to us, but for all scientists, as their are very few quality maps of the Lake Michigan lake bed!
20,000 Leagues Under the Stars
Chris Bresky Adler Planetarium / Far Horizons / Teen Programs Specialist
Making Meteorites with Shedd Teen Lab
Yesterday was a great day for science! Adler Planetarium Teens joined with Shedd Aquarium Teens in the Shedd’s Teen Learning Lab to join The Deep Space Dive Team!
Shedd Senior Research Biologist, Philip Willink gave the teens an understanding of the lake ecology in the area of the meteorite strewn field, and the challenges that had to be overcome to design a magnetic sled capable of retrieving the metal rich meteorites. Deep Space Dive Teens then teamed up to brainstorm how to make Dr. Willink’s sled even better (see photos and video).
U of Chicago Grad Student Jennika Greer, currently working with the Meteoritics expert Dr. Philipp Heck of The Field Museum, gave the teens information of where the meteorite came from and what it was probably made of so teens could create meteorite simulants to be used in these scientist’s underwater detection/retrieval experiments. Jennika emphasized that, “this is a lot of brand new science that you are all a part of.” The teens were ecstatic that they were part of this expedition, and proud to be helping scientists in their search (watch the video recap below).
We'll be testing the first prototype of the magnetic sled tomorrow! Stay tuned!
We're picking up steam as we meet more and more interested scientists and science enthusiasts who are excited by our team's work. This kind of meteorite hunt has very little precedent so we are figuring out each step as we go! Nothing like building a plane while it's in flight!
Our team was able to video conference with NASA Scientist Marc Fries, he works in curation and has done a considerable amount of work calculating meteorite falls from weather radar. (Click the link to one of his papers below) He shared new radar readout images (see images below) that show the fragments caught by radar after the fireball.
Dr. Mark Hammergren, Adler Astronomer, is working on calibrating the videos from the meteor sightings and will be able to calculate where in our solar system the meteorite came from. This is exceptional as this will be one of about 18 meteors that has been able to be tracked to its source from video footage. Finding out the meteorite's point of origin will give us a better understanding of what the meteorite is made of.
Adler Teens have completed our first draft of our PVC underwater ROV and will begin experimenting with neutral buoyancy (see image). Next week we'll be engineering meteorite simulants with teens from the Shedd Aquarium to be used in our underwater detection/retrieval tests with sonar and magnetometers (see images of test meteorites).
We are all grateful for the journey thus far, the chance to teach hands on, applicable science, and collaborate with scientists across fields of study. What an adventure!
Check out Marc Fries' Paper Slightly Cloudy with a Chance of Chondrites
20,000 Leagues Under the Stars,
Far Horizons Adler Teen Programs Specialist
Exciting News from NASA Scientist - Marc Fries about our meteorite!
"I can confidently say that this meteorite fall was one of the largest in terms of total mass of the roughly two-dozen falls seen in RADAR imagery since 1998. "
We're deep in planning mode! Our "Deep Space Dive Team" scientists met recently to talk details about the hunt. Greg Regnier of Great Lakes Expeditions, along with Dr. Philip Willink, Senior Research Biologist at the Shedd Aquarium, described the capabilities of the underwater scanning equipment.(See Video)
Dr. Mark Hammergren, Astronomer at the Adler Planetarium, and Philipp R. Heck, Associate Curator of Meteoritics and Polar Studies at the Field Museum, brainstormed techniques to test the scanning equipment. They proposed engineering faux meteorite fragments, creating a strewn field underwater, and testing the readouts of the scanning equipment.
Adler Planetarium After School Hangout Teens have begun engineering a basic, PVC framed ROV, to understand the engineering skills, and underwater science needed, to perform an underwater meteorite expedition. (See Pictures)
We'll begin initial underwater tests this month and plan on joining the these Open Explorers in June to begin to understand the bottom of Lake Michigan in this area. Stay tuned for more updates soon and we'd love to have you all come along for the journey.
20,000 Leagues Under the Stars
- Chris Bresky Far Horizons Adler Planetarium Teen Programs
The Adler Planetarium's Far Horizons Program has one mission: bring real space exploration down to Earth and into the hands of students, volunteers, and the public. On Monday, February 6, 2017, around 1:30am CST, a bit of space literally came to Earth and splashed down in our own backyard! Enthused by the hands on science this brings teens of Chicago, and the ability to collaborate with scientists across fields, the planning for this expedition began.
All parties involved understand the difficulty of this task, the "needle in a haystack" odds of this endeavor, and it drives us all the more to challenge teens of Far Horizons to engineer innovative ways to find and retrieve these meteorites. The STEM Professionals that work and volunteer in the Far Horizons Lab offer our team of teens helpful insights with their design concepts. Astronomers from The Adler Planetarium, and founding members of Far Horizons, Dr. Mark Hammergren and Dr. Shane Larson, enrich our student's understanding of the space science that brought this meteorite to our own back door.Dr. Philipp R. Heck, meteoritics expert from The Field Museum, has given our team insight into the possible make up of these meteorites and ways to detect them. Marc Fries, a scientist from NASA, and a colleague of Dr. Philipp R. Heck, calculated the radar data from the meteorite's path and has created a map that predicts locations of the meteorites (and size distribution), which will prove crucial in our hunt. We are also consulting with the Senior Research Biologist of the Shedd Aquarium, Dr. Philip Willink, to understand the environment of the lake bottom. Dr. WIllink is interested in this expedition, not only for a chance to find hunks of rock from space, but also to capture data of the lake floor that have not been clearly mapped in the past.
In 2003, a similar sized meteorite landed in Chicago, many of the larger fragments were around the size of softballs. The image below crashed through a Chicagoans roof and landed in their laundry! Dr. Philipp R. Heck assumes, from the size and color of the fireball that we are dealing with a similar size and make up of the Park Forest Meteorite (image seen below, Adler Planetarium).
This spring we'll continue to consult with experts as we prepare for our Meteorite Hunt scheduled for the summer (July/August). Everyone involved has a lot to learn from each other as the task of underwater meteorite recovery is rarely undertaken. We look forward to sharing with the Open Explorer Community, build Far Horizon's first OpenROV (to explore Far Horizons of the deep!) and welcome all interested explorers in the Great Lakes region who have access to equipment to join the search. We'll learn a lot from this journey, and hope you will too.
Far Horizons Teen Programs Specialist Adler Planetarium